Bsc 3rd Year Zoology Notes Pdf

Bsc 3rd Year Zoology Notes Pdf 

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Bsc 3rd Year Zoology Notes Pdf

Bsc 3rd Year Zoology Notes Pdf (Developmental Biology)

Introduction:
History and basic concepts: Epigenesis, preformation, Mosaic and regulative
development; Discovery of induction; Cell-Cell interaction; Pattern formation;
Differentiation and growth; Differential gene expression; Cytoplasmic determinants and asymmetric cell division. 

Early Embryonic Development:
Gametogenesis (Spermatogenesis, Oogenesis); Types of eggs; Egg membranes; Fertilization: Changes in gametes, monospermy and polyspermy; Planes and patterns of cleavage; Early development of frog and chick up to gastrulation; Fate maps; Embryonic induction and organizers. 

Late Embryonic Development:
Fate of germ layers; Extra-embryonic membranes in birds; Implantation of embryo in humans and Placenta (Structure, types and functions of placenta). 

Post Embryonic Development:
Metamorphosis: Changes, hormonal regulations in amphibians; Regeneration: Modes of regeneration (epimorphosis, morphallaxis and compensatory regeneration); Ageing: Concepts and models. 

Implications of Developmental Biology:
Teratogenesis: Teratogenic agents and their effects on embryonic development; in vitro Fertilization; Stem cell culture and Amniocentesis.

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Bsc 3rd Year Zoology Notes Pdf (Molecular Biology)

Nucleic Acids and DNA Replication:
Salient features of DNA double helix; Watson and Crick model of DNA; DNA
denaturation and renaturation; DNA topology - linking number and DNA topo-
isomerases; Cot curves; Structure of RNA, tRNA and DNA and RNA associated
proteins; DNA Replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mechanism of DNA
replication; Role of proteins and enzymes in replication; Licensing factors; Semi-
conservative, bidirectional and semi-discontinuous replication; RNA priming;
Replication of circular and linear ds-DNA and replication of telomeres.

Transcription:
RNA polymerase and transcription Unit; Mechanism of transcription in prokaryotes and Eukaryotes; Synthesis of rRNA and mRNA; Transcription factors and regulation of transcription. 

Translation:
Genetic code, Degeneracy of the genetic code and Wobble Hypothesis; Process of protein synthesis in prokaryotes: Ribosome structure and assembly in prokaryotes, fidelity of protein synthesis, aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and charging of tRNA; Proteins involved in initiation, elongation and termination of polypeptide chain; Inhibitors of protein synthesis; Difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation. 

Post Transcriptional Modifications and Processing of Eukaryotic RNA:
Structure of globin mRNA; Split genes: concept of introns and exons, splicing mechanism, alternative splicing, exon shuffling, and RNA editing.

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Bsc 3rd Year Zoology Notes Pdf (Immunology)

Immune System and Immunity:
Historical perspective of Immunology, Early theories of Immunology, Haematopoiesis, Cells and organs of the Immune system; Anatomical barriers, Inflammation, Cell and molecules involved in innate immunity, Adaptive immunity (Cell mediated and humoral),  
Passive: Artificial and natural Immunity, Active: Artificial and natural Immunity and
Immune dysfunctions.

Antigens:
Antigenicity and immunogenicity, Immunogens, Adjuvants and haptens, Factors influencing immunogenicity, B and T - Cell epitopes. 

Immunoglobulins:
Structure and functions of different classes of immunoglobulins, Antigen-antibody interactions, Immunoassays, Polyclonal sera, Monoclonal antibodies and Hybridoma technology. 

Major Histocompatibility Complex and Complement System:
Structure and functions of endogenous and exogenous pathway of antigen presentation; Components and pathways of complement activation. 

Cytokines, Hypersensitivity and Vaccines:
Properties and functions of cytokines; Cytokine-based therapies;Gell and Coombs’ classification and Brief description of various types of hypersensitivities; Types of vaccines Recombinant vaccines and DNA vaccines.

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Bsc 3rd Year Zoology Notes Pdf (Microbiology)

History of Microbiology:
Microbial World – Characterization, Classification and identification of microbes. 

Prokaryotes:
General morphology and classification of bacteria, their characters and economic importance; Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. 

Eukaryotes:
General morphology of Protista and Fungi – classification and economic importance. 

Viruses:
structure, genome, replication cycle; Epidemiology of infectious diseases with
reference of human hosts – Bacterial (Tuberculosis), Viral (Hepatitis), Protozoan
(Amoebiasis) and Fungal (any one) disease.

Microbe interactions-Immune Responses: Antibiotics and other chemotherapeutic agents; Applied microbiology in the fields of food, agriculture, industry and environment.

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