Bsc 2nd Year Botany Notes Pdf Download

Bsc 2nd Year Botany Notes Pdf Download

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Bsc 2nd Year Botany Notes Pdf Download

Plant Taxonomy And Embryology

1. Bsc 2nd Year Botany Notes Pdf Download (Introduction To Plant Taxonomy)

  • Fundamental components of taxonomy (identification, nomenclature, classification) .
  • Taxonomic resources: Herbarium- functions& important herbaria, Botanical gardens, Flora, Keys- single access and multi-access. 
  • Botanical Nomenclature- Principles and rules of ICBN (ranks and names; principle of priority, binomial system; type method, author citation, valid-publication).

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2. Bsc 2nd Year Botany Notes Pdf Download (Classification)

  • Types of classification- Artificial, Natural and Phylogenetic.
  • Bentham & Hooker’s system of classification- merits and demerits.
  • Engler & Prantle’s system of classification- merits and demerits .
  • Phylogeny – origin and evolution of Angiosperms.

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3. Bsc 2nd Year Botany Notes Pdf Download (Systemic Taxonomy-I)

Systematic study and economic importance of the following families: Annonaceae, Brassicaceae, Rutaceae, Curcurbitaceae, and Apiaceae.

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4. Bsc 2nd Year Botany Notes Pdf Download (Systemic Taxonomy-II)

Systematic study and economic importance of plants belonging to the following families: Asteraceae, Asclepiadaceae, Lamiaceae, Ephorbiaceae,Arecaceae,and Poaceae.

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5. Bsc 2nd Year Botany Notes Pdf Download (Embryology)

  • Anther structure, microsporogenesis and development of male gametophyte.
  • Ovule structure and types; Megasporogenesis, development of Monosporic, Bisporic and Tetrasporic types (Peperomia ,Drusa, Adoxa) of embryo sacs. 
  • Pollination and Fertilization (out lines) Endosperm development and types.
  • Development of Dicot and Monocot embryos, Polyembryony.

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Plant Physiology And Metabolism

1. Bsc 2nd Year Botany Notes Pdf Download (Water Relations)

  • Physical properties of water, Importance of water to plant life.
  • Diffusion, imbibition and osmosis; concept & components of Water potential.
  • Absorption and transport of water and ascent of sap.
  • Transpiration –Definition, types of transpiration, structure and opening and closing mechanism of stomata.

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2. Bsc 2nd Year Botany Notes Pdf Download (Mineral Nutritions And Enzymes)

  • Mineral Nutrition: Essential elements (macro and micronutrients) and their role in plant metabolism, deficiency symptoms. 
  • Mineral ion uptake (active and passive transport).
  • Nitrogen metabolism- biological nitrogen fixation in Rhizobium, outlines of protein synthesis (transcription and translation). 
  • Enzymes: General characteristics, mechanism of enzyme action and factors regulating enzyme action.

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3. Bsc 2nd Year Botany Notes Pdf Download (Photosynthesis)

  • Photosynthesis: Photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic light reactions, photo- phosphorylation, carbon assimilation pathways: C3, C4, and CAM (brief account) .
  • Photorespiration and its significance.
  • Translocation of organic solutes: mechanism of phloem transport, source-sink relationships.

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4. Bsc 2nd Year Botany Notes Pdf Download (Plant Metabolism)

  • Respiration: Glycolysis, anaerobic respiration, TCA cycle, electron transport system.
  • Mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation.
  • Lipid Metabolism: Types of lipids, Beta-oxidation.

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5. Bsc 2nd Year Botany Notes Pdf Download (Growth And Development)

  • Growth and development: definition, phases and kinetics of growth.
  • Physiological effects of phytohormones - Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, ABA, Ethylene and Brassinosteroids. 
  • Physiology of flowering -photoperiodism, role of phytochrome in flowering; Vernalization. 
  • Physiology of Scenescence and Ageing.

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